A depression, if it is not primarily a reaction to a life event, is called in psychiatry a major depressive disorder (MDD). It is a condition characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.[1] It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and psychological pain without a clear cause. There may also be false beliefs and – in the more severe cases – acoustic or visual hallucinations. Major depression needs to be differentiated from sadness. Depression often actually means the subjective absence of feelings, such as sadness. Those afflicted with depression often cannot feel themselves anymore as before, which can cause additional anxiety.

Major depressive disorder affected approximately 253 million (3.6%) of people in 2013. [14] The percentage of people who are affected at one point in their life varies from 7% in Japan to 21% in France. [15] Lifetime rates are higher in the developed world (15%) compared to the developing world (11%). [15] Depression causes the second most years lived with a disability after low back pain. [5] The most common time of onset is in a person in their 20s and 30s. Females are affected about twice as often as males.[2][6]

The many forms of depression

Depression can come in many forms and guises. A mental health professional can help you to identify more closely if you are suffering from depression and form which form. Some ups and downs are a normal part of life. Life does not come in a straight line, which is actually good news, because a straight line would mean that we miss out on the excitement, the feeling alive, that life also offers. However, if the lows, or the highs in those suffering from a bipolar condition, take on intensity or frequency that reduces your quality of life or ability to perform everyday tasks, you should consult a mental health professional.

Melancholia is sometimes seen as a mild form. The cliche image is sitting curled up by a window on a rainy day. Dysthymia is usually the term for episodes of depression that stay just below the clinical threshold. While major forms of depression can occur in one episode or in multiple episodes. Still, however intense it feels, talking to someone about it is usually a good idea, even in milder cases. The view from the outside can be helpful. We may be caught so much by our feeling low that it begins to feel normal. Good indications for depression are not just the feelings one experiences, which in severe forms of depression can be almost absent, but also one’s daily activities and interactions with others. This is where the view from the outside can be helpful. Some people have only one episode of depression in their life, some have episodes of depression separated by years in which they feel normal, while others have symptoms almost constantly. But in all these different forms, from the single case to the recurring depression, treatment is usually effective.

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria

The DSM-V, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in its 5th edition, published by the American Psychiatric Association outlines the following criteria for a diagnosis of depression. The individual must be experiencing five or more symptoms during the same 2-week period and at least one of the symptoms should be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

  1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day.
  2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day.
  3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain, or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day.
  4. A slowing down of thought and a reduction of physical movement (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).
  5. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.
  6. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt nearly every day.
  7. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day.
  8. Recurrent thoughts of death, without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

A diagnosis always needs to be carried out by a trained mental health professional.

Another form of depression is reactive depression, which occurs as part of a number of conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). I discuss these forms of depression within the articles on these conditions. For PTSD, for example, you may want to look at one of my articles on PTSD:

Understanding PTSD Symptoms Over Time: Longitudinal Network Analysis

Background Network modeling has been applied in a range of trauma-exposed samples, yet results are limited by an over reliance on cross-sectional data. The current analyses used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom data collected over a 5-year period to estimate a more robust between-subject network and an associated symptom change network. Methods A PTSD symptom network is measured ...

Communication-Focused Therapy (CFT) for PTSD (2)

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a relatively common disorder resulting from very different traumatic events or situations. A trauma represents information which cannot be processed by the organism in a way that is fully self-healing in the short-term. It causes a disturbance to internal communication systems which affects the internal and communication patterns a person ...

Intepersonal Psychotherapy and Exposure Therapies for PTSD (1)

Interpersonal Psychotherapy is a non-exposure-based PTSD treatment. Patients focus on current interpersonal encounters rather than past traumas. This approach may avoid some of the disadvantages of exposure oriented therapies, such as their lack of focus on individual processes, high attrition rates, lower effectiveness for symptoms of depression, association with fear induction and possible short-lived positive ...

Suicidal Thoughts

Suicidal thoughts can be quite common when one feels low or helpless. However, it should always be taken seriously and a mental health professional should be consulted. It does not automatically one has to stay in a hospital. Rather, it should be seen as a sign that something needs to be done quickly to address the mental health condition and raise the quality of life. Between 2-7% of adults with major depression die by suicide [3] and up to 60% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder [4]. With the right treatment early enough most of these suicides could have been prevented. Unfortunately, access to healthcare, particularly in the mental health area, is not the same everywhere. But in any case, if you experience suicidal thoughts, you should consult a healthcare professional right away. You can always call and go to an A&E. If none is available quickly, then you should contact a suicide hotline while making arrangements to see a mental health professional in person as soon as possible. Many people have experienced suicidal thoughts in their life, and it can be a strong starting point for very successful therapy.

A Vicious Cycle

Many people with milder forms of depression eventually come out of an episode, either spontaneously or because they have a good support network, are able to manage their stress in life, look after their sleep hygiene, exercise (in healthy moderation), and meditate, for example. However, psychotherapy or counselling is helpful at all levels of depression, and it can help prevent another episode. The problem is that depression can lead to a vicious cycle. The consequences of depression on one’s social life, for example, can make it more difficult to get out of the depression. Major depressive disorder can negatively affect a person’s family, work or school life, sleeping or eating habits, and general health, which distances us from an important resource for better mental health, other people.


The cause is believed to be a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. [1] Risk factors include a family history of the condition, major life changes, certain medications, chronic health problems, and substance abuse. [1] [2] About 40% of the risk appears to be related to genetics. [2]

Some other common symptoms of depression

Major depression significantly affects a person’s family and personal relationships, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. [7] Its impact on functioning and well-being has been compared to that of other chronic medical conditions such as diabetes. A person having a major depressive episode usually exhibits a very low mood, which pervades all aspects of life, and unhedonia, the inability to experience pleasure in activities that were formerly enjoyed. Depressed people may be preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred. [8] In severe cases, depressed people may have symptoms of psychosis. These symptoms include delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations, usually unpleasant.[9]

Other symptoms of depression include

  • poor concentration and memory
  • withdrawal from social situations and activities
  • reduced sex drive, irritability,
  • insomnia
  • and thoughts of death or suicide (which requires immediate professional help).

Insomnia is a common symptom. In the typical pattern, a person wakes very early and cannot get back to sleep.[25] Hypersomnia, or oversleeping, can also happen.[25] Some antidepressants may also cause insomnia due to their stimulating effect.[26]

A depressed person may report multiple physical symptoms such as

  • fatigue
  • headaches, or
  • digestive problems.

Appetite often decreases, with resulting weight loss, although increased appetite and weight gain occasionally occur. Family and friends may notice that the person’s behavior is either agitated or lethargic.



The biopsychosocial model proposes that biological, psychological, and social factors all play a role in causing depression.

On the biological side, the monoamine hypothesis is still the predominant biological explanation of depression. The monoamines are serotonine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. The antidepressants act on the neurotransmitter levels or on the receptors.

synapse-and-monoamine-hypothesis psychiatry psychotherapy depression
Chemical Transmission at the Synapse

Serotonin is hypothesized to regulate other neurotransmitter systems; decreased serotonin activity may allow these systems to act in unusual and erratic ways.[43] According to this “permissive hypothesis”, depression arises when low serotonin levels promote low levels of norepinephrine, another monoamine neurotransmitter.[44] Some antidepressants enhance the levels of norepinephrine directly, whereas others raise the levels of dopamine, a third monoamine neurotransmitter. These observations gave rise to the monoamine hypothesis of depression. In its contemporary formulation, the monoamine hypothesis postulates that a deficiency of certain neurotransmitters is responsible for the corresponding features of depression.

For further articles on depression on this site:

Pizza and Fears: A Slice of Comfort in the Face of Anxiety

Pizza—a universally adored delight, a culinary masterpiece that transcends cultural boundaries and tantalizes taste buds. Yet, in the realm of fears and anxieties, how does this beloved dish intertwine with our emotions and offer solace in times of distress? The Comforting Aura of Pizza Picture this: a warm, aromatic circle of dough topped with a medley of ...

Navigating Anxiety in the Context of Sexual Orientation: Understanding and Coping Strategies

Sexual orientation is a fundamental aspect of human identity, yet for many individuals, it can become a source of anxiety and stress. The complexities of societal expectations, self-acceptance, and potential discrimination can contribute to feelings of anxiety among individuals exploring or identifying with different sexual orientations. Understanding and addressing these concerns is crucial for mental ...

Your brain is not the problem

In the attached Reddit article, I hear again what I have been hearing often from patients. They feel as if there is something fundamentally wrong and defective with their brain and their mind. However, this line of thinking often leads to feeling even worse. In good psychotherapy, one important goal is to help you understand ...

The Fear of Missing Out, Smartphone Use, and Learning Burnout

The fear of missing out in young people has been linked to increased smartphone addiction. Increased smartphone use, in turn, has been linked to sleep difficulties and learning burnout, which is explored in more depth in the attached study. Probably, this phenomenon in various forms can also be extrapolated to people of all age groups. The ...

Rates of Depression and Anxiety Are Rising in Young People

We know young people are depressed and anxious. There are things we can do about it.

Guest blog: Teacher’s experiences help students navigate mental health

Guest blog: Teacher’s experiences help students navigate mental health MHA Admin Wed, 09/27/2023 – 08:10 September 27, 2023 by Michael Cullinane As a 46-year-old veteran high school teacher, I often worry my students will soon write me off with an “Okay, Boomer” response. Although a member of Generation X, technically I’m ...

Computerized linguistic analysis: Which associations correspond with students’ symptom reduction in a brief psychodynamic intervention?

This study explored some of the mechanisms that can be helpful in psychotherapy. It investigated the usefulness of a university counselling intervention by evaluating changes in psychological symptomatology before and after the therapeutic intervention and in the linguistic measures applied to clinical reports of the first and last sessions. The sample consisted of 88 university ...

Transdiagnostic treatment of depression and anxiety: a meta-analysis

BackgroundIn the past 10 years an increasing number of randomised trials have examined the effects of transdiagnostic treatments of patients with depression or anxiety. We conducted the first comprehensive meta-analysis of the outcomes of this emerging field.MethodsWe used the searches in PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase and the Cochrane library of an existing database of randomised trials ...

Adolescent use of the Internet and symptoms of depression and anxiety

BackgroundThe extent to which digital media use by adolescents contributes to poor mental health, or vice-versa, remains unclear. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the strength and direction of associations between adolescent internet use and the development of depression symptoms using a longitudinal modeling approach. We also examine whether associations differ for ...

Depression, anxiety common among college students

Depression and anxiety among college students is a growing public health problem. And new research suggests the problem may be worse for students who aren’t the same race as most of their peers. The new study found that students who were not the majority race at a predominantly white college reported significantly higher rates of ...

Purpose in life, depression and anxiety

Journal of Clinical Psychology, EarlyView.

Comparative effectiveness of group v. individual trauma-focused treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans

BackgroundCognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) delivered in an individual setting are efficacious and effective treatments for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Group CPT has been shown to be less efficacious than individual CPT, however, evidence regarding real-world effectiveness is limited.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective, observational, comparative effectiveness study including veterans that received ...

Effects of Music Combined With Sports Games on Alleviating Psychological Stress, Anxiety and Mental Energy Among Adolescents During COVID-19 Pandemic in Lanzhou Gansu Province China

Conditions:   Stress;   Anxiety and FearInterventions:   Behavioral: Music intervention only;   Behavioral: Sports games intervention only;   Behavioral: Music and sports games interventionSponsor:   Wu JiarunCompleted

New Study Reveals: Childhood Brain Morphometry Predicts Future Risk of Psychosis, Depression, and Anxiety

Background Gray matter morphometry studies have lent seminal insights into the etiology of mental illness. Existing research has primarily focused on adults and then, typically on a single disorder. Examining brain characteristics in late childhood, when the brain is preparing to undergo significant adolescent reorganization and various forms of serious psychopathology are just first emerging, may ...

Understanding PTSD Symptoms Over Time: Longitudinal Network Analysis

Background Network modeling has been applied in a range of trauma-exposed samples, yet results are limited by an over reliance on cross-sectional data. The current analyses used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom data collected over a 5-year period to estimate a more robust between-subject network and an associated symptom change network. Methods A PTSD symptom network is measured ...

Cutting back on social media reduces anxiety, depression, loneliness

Researchers found college students who tried to cut their social media use to 30 minutes per day scored significantly lower for anxiety, depression, loneliness and fear of missing out at the end of the two-week experiment and when compared to the control group.

How Are People in Ukraine Coping Six Months into the War? A Study on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression.

This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of mental health issues, specifically anxiety, depression, and stress, among 706 Ukrainians from different age groups and regions, both men and women, in the midst of the military conflict with Russia. The survey was conducted six months after the conflict began, from August to October 2022. The results ...

Discovering What Works: The Science of Youth Psychotherapy and Four Decades of Meta-Analysis

Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Volume 19, Issue 1, Page 79-105, May 2023.

Discover How Anxiety and Depression Affect Long COVID

Did you know that anxiety and depression might be playing a role for some people with long COVID? That’s what researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) found in their study. They discovered that patients who experienced difficulties with thinking during COVID-19 infection also tended to have lingering physical symptoms more frequently than ...

Discover How Interactive Art Exhibitions Can Boost Your Mood and Reduce Anxiety

Viewing interactive art online can improve our mood and reduce anxiety. People reported significant improvements in mood and anxiety after just a few minutes of viewing an interactive Monet Water Lily art exhibition from Google Arts and Culture. The study also found that individuals with high levels of aesthetic responsiveness benefit more from online art ...

How Our Self-Concept Affects Our Mood: An Insightful Look at Adolescent Depression and Brain Functions

Publication date: June 2023Source: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Volume 149Author(s): Rosalind D. Butterfield, Melanie Grad-Freilich, Jennifer S. Silk

Can Insulin Affect Depression by Affecting Dopamine and Reward Processing in the Brain?

Publication date: June 2023Source: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Volume 149Author(s): Judith Gruber, Ruth Hanssen, Mishal Qubad, Aicha Bouzouina, Vivi Schack, Hannah Sochor, Carmen Schiweck, Mareike Aichholzer, Silke Matura, David A. Slattery, Yurdaguel Zopf, Stephanie L. Borgland, Andreas Reif, Sharmili Edwin Thanarajah

Understanding Depression and Apathy in Huntington’s Disease: A Comprehensive Review

Publication date: June 2023Source: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Volume 149Author(s): Melanie L. Clark, Julie Abimanyi-Ochom, Ha Le, Brian Long, Carolyn Orr, Long Khanh-Dao Le

Discovering the link between depression and memory recall: a meta-analysis on over-general autobiographical memory.

Publication date: June 2023Source: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Volume 149Author(s): Samuel Weiss-Cowie, Paul Verhaeghen, Audrey Duarte

An Overview of Substance Use, Mood, and Anxiety Disorders in ADHD and Non-ADHD Adults

Publication date: Available online 5 May 2023Source: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Catharina A. Hartman, Qi Chen, Berit Skretting Solberg, Ebba Du Rietz, Kari Klungsøyr, Samuele Cortese, Søren Dalsgaard, Jan Haavik, Marta Ribasés, Jeanette C. Mostert, Berit Libutzki, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Bru Cormand, Melissa Vos, Henrik Larsson, Andreas Reif, Stephen V. Faraone, Alessio Bellato

Get ready for the future of mental health research: Center for Global Mental Health Research Webinar Series 2023 – Finding the perfect treatment for the right people at the right time. Let’s promote stratification to boost Global Mental Health!

This webinar focuses on the value of stratification as a tool for driving transformative change in early interventions for people with anxiety, depression, and psychosis.

Discover How Ultraprocessed Foods Can Affect Your Mental Health!

Eating packaged foods like cereal and frozen meals has been associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive decline. Scientists are still piecing together why.

Meta-Analysis Shows Effective Psychological Treatment for Perinatal Depression

Background Depression during pregnancy and after the birth of a child is highly prevalent and an important public health problem. Psychological interventions are the first-line treatment and, although a considerable number of randomized trials have been conducted, no recent comprehensive meta-analysis has evaluated treatment effects. Methods We used an existing database of randomized controlled trials of psychotherapies for ...

The effect of anxiety and depression on the health-related quality of life of severe acute pancreatitis survivors: structural equation modeling approach

Background Understanding the relationship between anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) provides important clues to alleviate anxiety, depression and improve HRQOL in patients after severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of anxiety and depression on HRQOL in post-SAP patients using structural equation modeling. Methods A cross-sectional study design ...

Discovering the Positive Impact of Counselling: A Community Study on Anxiety and Depression

Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, EarlyView.

Anxiety, depressive symptoms, and distress over the course of the war in Ukraine in three federal states in Germany

The Russian invasion of Ukraine and the resulting consequences are in the center of political discussions, media, and likely individual thinking of the population in Germany. Yet, the impact of this prolonged exposure on mental health is not known hitherto. Using the population based cohort study DigiHero from three federal states (Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony, and Bavaria), we ...

Relationship between depression, anxiety, stress, and SARS-CoV-2 infection: a longitudinal study

ObjectivesWe aimed to (1) describe the course of the emotional burden (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) in a general population sample during the coronavirus pandemic in 2020 and 2021 and (2) explore the association between emotional burden and a serologically proven infection with SARS-CoV-2.Study designThis longitudinal study involved a sample of community-dwelling persons aged ≥14 years ...

Brief self-affirmation intervention for adults with psoriasis for reducing anxiety and depression and boosting well-being: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

Background There are relatively few studies to address mental health implications of self-affirming, especially across groups experiencing a chronic health condition. In this study, short- and longer-term effects of a brief self-affirmation intervention framed in terms of implementation intentions (if-then plans with self-affirming cognitions; S-AII) were evaluated against an active control group (non-affirming implementation intentions; N-AII), ...

Condition openness is associated with better mental health in individuals with an intersex/differences of sex development condition: structural equation modeling of European multicenter data

Background Openness on one’s health condition or (stigmatized) identity generally improves mental health. Intersex or differences of sex development (DSD) conditions have long been kept concealed and high levels of (internalizing) mental health problems are reported. This study examines the effects of condition openness on anxiety and depression and the role of mediating concepts in this ...

Prenatal maternal stress, child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and the moderating role of parenting: findings from the Norwegian mother, father, and child cohort study

Background Few studies have examined how parenting influences the associations between prenatal maternal stress and children’s mental health. The objectives of this study were to examine the sex-specific associations between prenatal maternal stress and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and to assess the moderating effects of parenting behaviors on these associations. Methods This study is based on 15 ...

Accelerated biological aging and risk of depression and anxiety: evidence from 424,299 UK Biobank participants

Accelerated biological aging and risk of depression and anxiety: evidence from 424,299 UK Biobank participants

Study: ADHD Increases Risk for Postpartum Depression, Anxiety

Women with ADHD are six times more likely than neurotypical mothers to experience postpartum anxiety, and five times more likely to experience postpartum depression, according to a new Swedish study on PPD.

Tracking perceived stress, anxiety, and depression in daily life: a double-downward spiral process

IntroductionPrevious studies using retrospective questionnaires have suggested a complex relationship between perceived stress and related negative emotions and emphasized their importance in mental health. However, how daily perceived stress, anxiety, and depression interact dynamically in a natural context remains largely unexplored.MethodsThis study conducted a longitudinal survey that applied experience sampling methodology to data from 141 ...

Postpartum people’s experiences of and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic during the first year of the pandemic: A descriptive qualitative study

Women’s Health, Volume 19, Issue , January-December 2023. Background:Most evidence on the impact of pandemic on perinatal population’s experiences has reported such effects in a portion of the pandemic.Objectives:The aim of this study was to understand the postpartum people’s experiences of and responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic during the first year and to ...

A systematic review of fear, stigma, and mental health outcomes of pandemics


Exposure to COVID-19 news and its relation to stress, depression, and anxiety in the context of difficulty in accessing social support


Network analysis of the relationships between problematic smartphone use and anxiety, and depression in a sample of Chinese college students

… the aim of this study was to closely examine the relationships between (PSU) and anxiety and depression to identify the pathological mechanisms underpinning those relationships. A second aim was to identify important bridge nodes to identify potential targets for intervention. … … Five strongest edges appeared within the communities in both the ...

[Correspondence] A fundamental change is needed for appraising placebo responses in psychiatry

In the Alpha-Stim Anxiety Insomnia and Depression cranial electrotherapy stimulation trial, Richard Morriss and colleagues reported no significant difference in their primary depression outcome between active and sham groups.1 Although not the headline of the article, 41% of recruited patients who received sham stimulation had remission of their depression. This remarkable result adds to the ...

A New Model Predicts Depression and Anxiety Using Artificial Intelligence and Social Media

Utilizing data from Twitter and applying natural language processing artificial intelligence algorithms, researchers created a new, accurate prediction model for depression and anxiety.

The fNIRS evaluation of frontal and temporal lobe cortical activation in Chinese first-episode medication-naïve and recurrent depression during a verbal fluency task

… Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) identifies neurophysiological differences between psychiatric disorders by assessing cortical hemodynamic function. Few trials have studied differences in brain functional activity between first-episode medication-naïve depression patients (FMD) and recurrent major depression (RMD). We aimed to determine the differences between FMD and RMD in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (), and to investigate the ...

Rick Hanson: Compassion is a kind of superpower. Here’s what research says it can do.

Compassion makes us more resilient and less anxious or depressed, and it increases self-worth and happiness, research tells us.

Classic Psychedelic Use and Mechanisms of Mental Health: Exploring the Mediating Roles of Spirituality and Emotion Processing on Symptoms of Anxiety, Depressed Mood, and Disordered Eating in a Community Sample

Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Ahead of Print. A resurgence of research has begun to systematically examine the relationship between psychedelic use and mental health and well-being. Although preliminary findings examining the therapeutic value of these substances show promise, the mechanisms through which psychedelic use may predict reduced mental distress remain poorly understood. To this end, ...

Social media use and adolescents’ well-being: A note on flourishing

BackgroundSeveral large-scale studies and reviews have reported both negative and positive associations of social media use with well-being, suggesting that the findings are more complex and need more nuanced study. Moreover, there is little or no exploration of how social media use in adolescence influences flourishing, a more all-encompassing construct beyond well-being, including six sub-domains ...

Long-term Exposure to Multiple Ambient Air Pollutants and Association With Incident Depression and Anxiety

This cohort study investigates the association of long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and incident depression and anxiety.

Differential relationship of observer-rated and self-rated depression and anxiety scales with heart rate variability features

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a known psychophysiological marker for diverse psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential for clinical use of HRV by investigating the interrelationship between HRV indices and clinical measures mainly used to assess depressive and anxious symptoms. … … Our study showed that HRV is an objective indicator ...

The contribution of transdiagnostic vulnerability factors in patients with chronic insomnia

Two hundred patients with chronic insomnia disorder were recruited from a sleep disorder clinic. … After controlling for the confounding variables (depression/anxiety symptoms and demographic characteristics), hierarchical multiple linear regression suggested the significant association of neuroticism (BFI), cognitive reappraisal (ERQ), personal standards (CPQ), evaluative concerns (CPQ), physical concerns (ASI), cognitive concerns (ASI), and repetitive negative thinking ...

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Late-Life Depression (CBTlate): Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Controlled Trial

Introduction: Different psychotherapeutic interventions for late-life depression (LLD) have been proposed, but their evaluation in large, multicenter trials is rare. Objective: The present study evaluated the efficacy of a specific cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for LLD (LLD-CBT) in comparison with a supportive unspecific intervention (SUI), both administered in a specialist psychiatric outpatient setting. … Conclusions: ...

The risk factors of progestational anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance in women with recurrent pregnancy loss: A cross-sectional study in China

BackgroundThe risk factors of progestational anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) remain controversial, additional study is needed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of progestational anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in RPL women.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among 663 non-pregnant RPL women in Northeast China ...

Self perceived health and stress in the pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic has had numerous maternal and neonatal consequences, especially at the mental level. Pregnant women experience a rise in anxiety symptoms and prenatal stress. The aim was to describe self-perceived health status, general stress and prenatal stress and to analyze relations and associations with sociodemographic factors. … During the first trimester of gestation, prenatal concerns ...

Newly Discovered Trigger for Major Depression Opens New Possibilities for Treatments

Glycine, a common amino acid, appears to play a role in the development of major depression, anxiety, and other mood-related disorders.

An exploration of happiness, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms among older adults during the coronavirus pandemic.

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide. Because of the challenges associated with the pandemic, universal levels of happiness have likely depleted. We know little about how those with prior existing mental health concerns have responded to the pandemic. Using cross-sectional (study 1; N = 1,366) and longitudinal (study 2; N = 262) ...

Mindfulness-informed (ACT) and Mindfulness-based Programs (MBSR/MBCT) applied for college students to reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety

Publication date: November 2022Source: Journal of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy, Volume 32, Issue 4Author(s): Liang Ma, Yanjie Wang, Le Pan, Zeshi Cui, Philip J. Schluter

Cognitive behavior therapy vs. control conditions, other psychotherapies, pharmacotherapies and combined treatment for depression: a comprehensive meta‐analysis including 409 trials with 52,702 patients

World Psychiatry, Volume 22, Issue 1, Page 105-115, February 2023.

Depression and brain fog as long-COVID mental health consequences: Difficult, complex and partially successful treatment of a 72-year-old patient—A case report

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection can result in long-term health consequences i.e., long COVID. The clinical manifestations of long COVID include depression, anxiety, brain fog with cognitive dysfunction, memory issues, and fatigue. These delayed effects of COVID-19 occur in up to 30% of people who have had an acute case of COVID-19. …

Pilot Testing C-STRESS: A Mental Health App for College Students With Depression

Conditions:   Depression;   Anxiety;   Stress, Psychological;   Mobile Phone UseIntervention:   Device: C-STRESSSponsors:   Benten Technologies, Inc.;   University of California, IrvineCompleted

Chatbot Intervention for Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults

Conditions:   Anxiety;   DepressionInterventions:   Behavioral: Chatbot;   Behavioral: Control (book)Sponsors:   University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw;   Ministry of Science and Higher Education, PolandCompleted

Effectiveness of yoga for major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Major depressive disorder (MDD) has a relapse rate that cannot be ignored and places a tremendous burden on the patient in the prevention and treatment process. Yoga, a combination of physical and mental exercises, is effective and acceptable for the adjunctive treatment of MDD. This study aimed to explore further the evidence of yoga’s efficacy ...

A cross-sectional study of sleep, mood, well-being, motivations, and perceived support in Ukrainian veterans and active-duty military personnel with disability, and their supporters, preparing for a sporting event

PurposeThe benefits of sports and exercise to the lives and rehabilitative journeys of military veterans with disabilities is increasingly well-documented but veteran sporting events remain underexplored. Addressing this topic, the current article seeks to provide insight into the health and well-being of Team Ukraine during a 5-week preparatory camp in the UK before attendance at ...

Somatic symptom profiles are associated with pre-treatment depression and anxiety symptom severity but not inpatient therapy outcomes


Sustained increase in depression and anxiety among psychiatrically healthy adolescents during late stage COVID-19 pandemic

Increased symptoms of depression and anxiety were sustained at the later stage of the pandemic in healthy adolescents. Replication of these findings with a larger sample size would be required to draw firm conclusions.

Relationship of insight to neurocognitive function and risk of recurrence in depression: A naturalistic follow-up study

… Lack of insight may affect patients’ motivation to seek treatment, resulting in poor clinical outcomes. … Patients with MDD, without insight, had significantly higher total and factor scores (anxiety/somatization, weight, retardation, and sleep) on the HAM-D and worse performance in the neurocognition task, compared to those with insight. Furthermore, binary logistic regression revealed that ...

Prevalence of depression and its association with quality of life in patients after pacemaker implantation during the COVID-19 pandemic: A network analysis

This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of predictors of depression in patients after pacemaker implantation during the COVID-19 pandemic in addition to identifying specific depressive symptoms associated with quality of life (QOL) using network analysis (NA).

Communication and Connectedness against Depression and Anxiety

Haverkampf-CJ-Communication-and-Connectedness-against-Depression-and-Anxiety-J-Psychiatry-Psychotherapy-Communication-2022-Jun-30-62-21-24Download   Communication and Connectedness against Depression and Anxiety Christian Jonathan Haverkampf Abstract—Connectedness with others is an important criterion for mental health. While understanding the underlying content and dynamics is essential, connectedness with others can help reduce anxiety and depression. In addition, external connectedness requires internal connectedness. Index Terms—connectedness, communication, depression, anxiety, treatment, psychotherapy, psychiatry I.     INTRODUCTION Connectedness is a feeling of ...

Depression and the Emotions

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts, behaviour, feelings, and sense of well-being. In its extreme form, depression leads to a state where one no longer feels one’s emotions, which is ultimately meant by the term ‘depression’, an overall decrease in feeling one’s emotions, including ...

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): the link between sunlight and health

Sunlight helps to regulate the hormones serotonin and melatonin, it has also been shown to affect brain blood flow. Thus, sunlight may not only affect mood directly, but also via its effect on cognition, because cognitive impairment can underlie a depressive episode. A lack of vitamin D, which is synthetized in the presence of sunlight, can ...

Psychotherapy to Treat and Manage Depression For this video and more information about depression see the National Alliance on Mental Illness Psychotherapy helps people with depression: * Understand the memories, thoughts, emotions and behaviours that contribute to their depression * Understand unresolved emotions and life events from one’s personal history which may contribute to the depression * Understand interpersonal difficulties and maladaptive interpersonal interaction patterns * ...

Building on the Basic Parameters (1)

Building on the Basic Parameters: Living the Good Life Christian Jonathan Haverkampf, M.D. Living according to the basic parameters means an increased quality of life, living a better life. The basic parameters are the needs, values and aspirations of an individual. Communication helps to make this possible. Keywords: depression, treatment, psychotherapy, psychiatry Contents Introduction. 3 References. 4 Introduction Building on the basic parameters ...

Communication-Focused Therapy® (CFT) for Depression

Communication-Focused Therapy® (CFT) for Depression Christian Jonathan Haverkampf, M.D. Depression is a mental health condition that affects a large part of the population at least once over their life span, significantly reducing life quality and impairing work and relationships. Psychotherapy and medication are the main treatments for the condition. Communication-Focused Therapy® (CFT) is a therapy developed by ...

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Depression Christian Jonathan Haverkampf, M.D. Depression is one of the most common medical conditions, which can interfere significantly with a person’s quality of life, relationships and ability to work. Several effective treatments are available, including psychotherapy and medication. This article contains a brief overview of both areas, while focusing on psychotherapy, particularly Communication-Focused Therapy® (CFT), as developed ...


Depression Christian Jonathan Haverkampf, M.D. Depression is one of the most common medical conditions, which can interfere significantly with a person’s quality of life, relationships and ability to work. Several effective treatments are available, including psychotherapy and medication. This article contains a brief overview of both areas, while focusing on psychotherapy, particularly Communication-Focused Therapy® (CFT), as developed ...

Communication-Focused Therapy® (CFT) for Depression

Communication-Focused Therapy® (CFT) for Depression Christian Jonathan Haverkampf, M.D. Depression is a mental health condition that affects a large part of the population at least once over their life span, significantly reducing life quality and impairing work and relationships. Psychotherapy and medication are the main treatments for the condition. Communication-Focused Therapy® (CFT) is a therapy developed by ...


Burnout Dr Christian Jonathan Haverkampf, M.D. Burnout is a type of psychological stress. Occupational burnout or job burnout is characterized by exhaustion, lack of enthusiasm and motivation, feelings of ineffectiveness, and often a sense of frustration and higher irritability. Efficacy within the workplace is usually reduced, no matter how much the individual tries to work even harder ...

Haverkampf CJ Atypical Depression J Psychiatry Psychotherapy Communication 2018 Dec 31 9(4) 91-97

Body Work and Exercise for Anxiety Panic Attacks Depression and OCD

Body Work and Exercise for Anxiety, Panic Attacks, Depression and OCD Christian Jonathan Haverkampf, M.D. Working with the body is often neglected in major schools of psychotherapy, such as psychodynamic psychotherapy and CBT. Depression and anxiety disorders are some of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders with close to one in five of adults exhibiting symptoms. Exercise has ...

Psychopharmacological Frontiers (1)

Psychopharmacological Frontiers Christian Jonathan Haverkampf, M.D. New developments in psychopharmacology have driven much of the progress over the last decades. This article discusses new developments in the area of antidepressants and antipsychotics. Keywords: depression, SSRI, SNRI, ketamine, glutamate antagonist, NMDA, scopolamine, magnesium, glutamine, CP-AMPA, serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, antidepressants, major depressive disorder, medication, treatment psychiatry Table of Contents Introduction. 4 Discovery. 5 From ...

Tell me about Your Life – Narrative Communication and Change

Communication-Focused Therapy (CFT) for Depression

Communication-Focused Therapy (CFT) for Depression Christian Jonathan Haverkampf, M.D. Depression is a mental health condition that affects a large part of the population at least once over their life span, significantly reducing the quality of life and impairing work and relationships. The condition is mostly treated with psychotherapy and medication. Communication-Focused Therapy (CFT) is a therapy form ...

Depression and Psychotherapy (6)

Abstract – Depression has become highly treatable and this article explores some ways of treating it with the use of psychotherapy. The approach presented is a communication focused psychotherapy which has been developed and described by the author before. Psychotherapy alone may not be sufficient in more severe cases, where medication is usually added to ...

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Abstract – Depression is the medical condition with one of the highest prevalence rates, but also one of the costliest ones in terms of human suffering, missed work hours, higher mortality and the higher incidence of physical illnesses. First-line treatment is usually a combination of medication and psychotherapy. In milder cases, psychotherapy alone may be ...

Depression in pregnancy needs to be treated

News items are not checked for factual correctness or safety. Much attention has focused on postpartum depression (that is, the occurrence of depression in the mother after giving birth), which occurs in about one in 8-10 women. But depression during the nine months of pregnancy occurs as frequently, yet has received less spotlight. For the full article ...


[1] “Depression”. NIMH. May 2016.

[2] American Psychiatric Association (2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, pp. 160–168, ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8

[3] Richards, C. Steven; O’Hara, Michael W. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Depression and Comorbidity. Oxford University Press. p. 254. ISBN 9780199797042.

[4] Lynch, Virginia A.; Duval, Janet Barber (2010). Forensic Nursing Science. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 453. ISBN 0323066380.

[5] Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, Collaborators (22 August 2015). “Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.”. Lancet (London, England). 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMID 26063472.

[6] Kessler, RC; Bromet, EJ (2013). “The epidemiology of depression across cultures.”. Annual review of public health. 34: 119–38. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031912-114409. PMC 4100461. PMID 23514317.

[7] Depression (PDF). National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

[8] American Psychiatric Association 2000a, p. 349

[9] American Psychiatric Association 2000a, p. 412

© 2012, 2016 Dr Christian Jonathan Haverkampf. All rights reserved.


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This article is solely a basis for academic discussion and no medical advice can be given in this article, nor should anything herein be construed as advice. Always consult a professional if you believe you might suffer from a physical or mental health condition.

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