Why do i cry so much always? Im not normal. No one cries as much as me around me. I cry looking at people on road, I cry looking at underprivileged children playing in the sun with no proper food, shelter, clothing. I cry seeing an old man eating alone because it feels lonely like […]
Mania does not bring people joy, it steals it.
BackgroundIndividuals with depression have an increased dementia risk, which might be due to modifiable risk factors for dementia. This study investigated the extent to which the increased risk for dementia in depression is explained by modifiable dementia risk factors.MethodsWe used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2008–2009 to 2018–2019), a prospective cohort study. A total of 7460 individuals were included [mean(standard deviation) age, 65.7 ± 9.4 years; 3915(54.7%) were women]. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-8 (score ≥3) or self-reported doctor’s diagnosis. Ten modifiable risk factors for dementia were combined in the ‘LIfestyle for BRAin health’ (LIBRA) score. Dementia was determined by physician diagnosis, self-reported Alzheimer’s disease or the shortened version of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (average score ≥3.38). Structural equation modelling was used to test mediation of LIBRA score.ResultsDuring 61 311 person-years, 306 individuals (4.1%) developed dementia. Participants aged 50–70 years with depressive symptoms had higher LIBRA scores [difference(s.e.) = 1.15(0.10)] and a 3.59 times increased dementia risk [HR(95% CI) = 3.59(2.20–5.84)], adjusted for age, sex, education, wealth and clustering at the household level. In total, 10.4% of the dementia risk was mediated by differences in LIBRA score [indirect effect: HR = 1.14(1.03–1.26)], while 89.6% was attributed to a direct effect of depressive symptoms on dementia risk [direct effect: HR = 3.14(2.20–5.84)].ConclusionsModifiable dementia risk factors can be important targets for the prevention of dementia in individuals with depressive symptoms during midlife. Yet, effect sizes are small and other aetiological pathways likely exist.
Von Bauchgrummeln bis zum gelben Schein: Der Gedanke an Arbeit löst bei vielen Sorge aus. Die Psychologin Beate Muschalla erklärt, ab wann das gefährlich ist und was gegen Ängste helfen kann.
How the real estate mogul and TV star manages his time in accordance with his values.
Comparative effectiveness of group v. individual trauma-focused treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans
BackgroundCognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) delivered in an individual setting are efficacious and effective treatments for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Group CPT has been shown to be less efficacious than individual CPT, however, evidence regarding real-world effectiveness is limited.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective, observational, comparative effectiveness study including veterans that received at least eight sessions of group CPT, individual CPT, or individual PE, and were discharged from PTSD residential treatment at the Department of Veterans Affairs between 1 October 2015, and 30 September 2020. PTSD symptom severity was assessed with the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and treatments delivered in a group (CPT) or individual (CPT or PE) setting were compared at discharge and 4-month post-discharge follow-up.ResultsOf 6735 veterans, 3888 [653 women (17%), median (IQR) age 45 (35–55) years] received individual and 2847 [206 women (7.2%), median (IQR) age 42 (34–54)] received group therapy. At discharge, improvement in PTSD severity was statistically greater among those treated individually (mean difference on the PCL-5, 2.55 (95% CI 1.61–3.49); p =
Für Kinder ist alles das erste Mal. Auch ihre Emotionen müssen sie erst verstehen lernen. Mit diesen sechs gefühlvollen Geschichten kann man gut über Angst, Neugier oder Schüchternheit ins Gespräch kommen.
Aberrant brain connectivity during emotional processing, especially within the fronto-limbic pathway, is one of the hallmarks of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the methodological heterogeneity of previous studies made it difficult to determine the functional and etiological implications of specific alterations in brain connectivity. We previously reported alterations in psychophysiological interaction measures during emotional face processing, distinguishing depressive pathology from at-risk/resilient and healthy states. Here, we extended these findings by effective connectivity analyses in the same sample to establish a refined neural model of emotion processing in depression.
Thirty-seven patients with MDD, 45 first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and 97 healthy controls performed a face-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We used dynamic causal modeling to estimate task-dependent effective connectivity at the subject level. Parametric empirical Bayes was performed to quantify group differences in effective connectivity.
MDD patients showed decreased effective connectivity from the left amygdala and left lateral prefrontal cortex to the fusiform gyrus compared to relatives and controls, whereas patients and relatives showed decreased connectivity from the right orbitofrontal cortex to the left insula and from the left orbitofrontal cortex to the right fusiform gyrus compared to controls. Relatives showed increased connectivity from the anterior cingulate cortex to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to patients and controls.
Our results suggest that the depressive state alters top-down control of higher visual regions during face processing. Alterations in connectivity within the cognitive control network present potential risk or resilience mechanisms.
There are many philosophical theories about what makes life go well, but they tend to leave out the ingredient that is, from the clinical point of view, most important of all. When asked about the key to happiness, Sigmund Freud once responded with “love and work.” This can be understood as emphasizing the importance of
Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: The Key Factors Behind Persisting Social Impairment – Insights from Biopsychosocial Approach
Psychosocial deficits, such as emotional, behavioral and social problems, reflect the most common and disabling consequences of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Their causes and recovery likely differ from physical and cognitive skills, due to disruption to developing brain networks and the influence of the child’s environment. Despite increasing recognition of post-injury behavioral and social problems, there exists a paucity of research regarding the incidence of social impairment, and factors predicting risk and resilience in the social domain over time since injury.
Using a prospective, longitudinal design, and a bio-psychosocial framework, we studied children with TBI (n = 107) at baseline (pre-injury function), 6 months, 1 and 2-years post-injury. We assessed intellectual ability, attention/executive function, social cognition, social communication and socio-emotional function. Children underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2–8 weeks post-injury. Parents rated their child’s socio-emotional function and their own mental health, family function and perceived burden.
We distinguished five social recovery profiles, characterized by a complex interplay between environment and pre- and post-TBI factors, with injury factors playing a lesser role. Resilience in social competence was linked to intact family and parent function, intact pre-injury adaptive abilities, post-TBI cognition and social participation. Vulnerability in the social domain was related to poor pre- and post-injury adaptive abilities, greater behavioral concerns, and poorer pre- and post-injury parent health and family function.
We identified five distinct social recovery trajectories post-child-TBI, each characterized by a unique biopsychosocial profile, highlighting the importance of comprehensive social assessment and understanding of factors contributing to social impairment, to target resources and interventions to children at highest risk.