symptoms

Understanding PTSD Symptoms Over Time: Longitudinal Network Analysis

Background
Network modeling has been applied in a range of trauma-exposed samples, yet results are limited by an over reliance on cross-sectional data. The current analyses used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom data collected over a 5-year period to estimate a more robust between-subject network and an associated symptom change network.

Methods
A PTSD symptom network is measured in a sample of military veterans across four time points (Ns = 1254, 1231, 1106, 925). The repeated measures permit isolating between-subject associations by limiting the effects of within-subject variability. The result is a highly reliable PTSD symptom network. A symptom slope network depicting covariation of symptom change over time is also estimated.

Results
Negative trauma-related emotions had particularly strong associations with the network. Trauma-related amnesia, sleep disturbance, and self-destructive behavior had weaker overall associations with other PTSD symptoms.

Conclusions
PTSD’s network structure appears stable over time. There is no single ‘most important’ node or node cluster. The relevance of self-destructive behavior, sleep disturbance, and trauma-related amnesia to the PTSD construct may deserve additional consideration.

anxiety panic attack fear treatment help OCD phobia psychotherapy psychiatry Dr Jonathan Haverkampf

Uncovering Anxiety in Cushing’s Disease: A Case Report

Click here for the article published by Frontiers in Psychiatry. Dealing with secondary psychiatric symptoms while treating patients in clinical settings can be quite challenging. However, in this case study, the authors discuss a female patient with Cushing’s disease, who was initially misdiagnosed with anxiety disorder. Despite multiple attempts with psychiatric intervention, her condition persisted, …

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St Patrick’s – The Anxiety Disorders Programme

Anxiety Anxiety is the body and mind’s natural reaction to threat or danger. In certain cases, high levels of anxiety are considered normal and helpful if they prompt an escape from danger. In situations such as interviews and exams, anxiety can enhance performance. When anxiety becomes excessive or debilitating, however, it is then considered an …

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