Pregnancy and Child Birth

Meta-Analysis Shows Effective Psychological Treatment for Perinatal Depression

Depression during pregnancy and after the birth of a child is highly prevalent and an important public health problem. Psychological interventions are the first-line treatment and, although a considerable number of randomized trials have been conducted, no recent comprehensive meta-analysis has evaluated treatment effects.

We used an existing database of randomized controlled trials of psychotherapies for adult depression and included studies aimed at perinatal depression. Random effects models were used in all analyses. We examined the effects of the interventions in the short and long term, and also examined secondary outcomes.

Forty-three studies with 49 comparisons and 6270 participants between an intervention and control group were included. The overall effect size was g = 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45~0.89; numbers needed-to-be-treated = 4.39] with high heterogeneity (I2 = 80%; 95% CI 75~85). This effect size remained largely unchanged and significant in a series of sensitivity analyses, although some publication bias was found. The effects remained significant at 6–12 months follow-up. Significant effects were also found for social support, anxiety, functional limitations, parental stress and marital stress, although the number of studies for each outcome was low. All results should be considered with caution because of the high levels of heterogeneity in most analyses.

Psychological interventions are probably effective in the treatment of perinatal depression, with effects that last at least up to 6–12 months and probably also have effects on social support, anxiety, functional impairment, parental stress, and marital stress.

Trajectories of distress from pregnancy to 15-months post-partum during the COVID-19 pandemic

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has particularly burdened pregnant and postpartum women. It remains unclear how distress levels of pregnant and postpartum people have changed (or persisted) as the pandemic continues on and which factors may contribute to these trajectories of distress.MethodsThis longitudinal study included 304 pregnant people, who were followed during pregnancy, 6-weeks, 6-months and 15-months postpartum. At each time point, a latent “distress” factor was estimated using self-reported depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and stress. Reported negative impact of COVID-19 and social support were assessed during pregnancy as risk and protective factors related to distress. Second-order latent growth curve modeling with a piecewise growth function was used to estimate initial levels and changes in distress over time.ResultsMean distress was relatively stable from the pregnancy to 6-weeks postpartum and then declined from 6-weeks to 15-months postpartum. Higher education, greater social support, and lower negative impact of COVID-19 were associated with a lower distress during pregnancy. Unexpectedly, negative impact of COVID-19 was associated with a faster decrease in distress and more social support was associated with a greater increase in distress from pregnancy to 6-weeks postpartum. However, these effects became non-significant after controlling for distress during pregnancy.ConclusionFindings indicate high but declining levels of distress from pregnancy to the postpartum period. Changes in distress are related to social support and the negative impact of the pandemic in pregnancy. Findings highlight the continued impact of COVID-19 on perinatal mental health and the need for support to limit the burden of this pandemic on pregnant people and families.

The risk factors of progestational anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance in women with recurrent pregnancy loss: A cross-sectional study in China

BackgroundThe risk factors of progestational anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) remain controversial, additional study is needed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of progestational anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in RPL women.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted among 663 non-pregnant RPL women in Northeast China from October 2019 to July 2022. We assessed the state of anxiety, depression, and sleep quality before pregnancy using structured questionnaires, including sociodemographic characteristics, state-trait anxiety scale (STAI), center for epidemiological survey, depression scale (CES-D), Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and symptom self-rating scale (SCL-90). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between sleep quality and anxiety, depression. Pearson’s correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between anxiety and depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find the risk factors of depression symptoms. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the predictive value of the model.ResultsThe incidence of state anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance in RPL women were 60.3, 51.7, 33.9, and 31.2%, respectively. The level of anxiety and depression in RPL women varied at different stages of treatment. In a longitudinal study (25 pairs), we found the level of state anxiety and trait anxiety were significantly lower after the cause was identified. Sleep disturbance is positively correlated with anxiety and depression. Logistic regression showed that the number of miscarriages ≥4 (Odds ratio (OR) = 2.268, 95%CI 1.300–3.956), Low household family income (OR = 1.613, 95%CI 1.036–2.513/OR = 2.361, 95%CI 1.095–5.092), interval since last miscarriage

Self perceived health and stress in the pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Click here for the article published by Frontiers in Psychiatry. The COVID-19 pandemic has had numerous maternal and neonatal consequences, especially at the mental level. Pregnant women experience a rise in anxiety symptoms and prenatal stress. The aim was to describe self-perceived health status, general stress and prenatal stress and to analyze relations and associations …

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Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Linked to Gender-Specific Adversities

Click here for the article published by Psychology News Service. Source: Google News – Health A new study has identified sex-specific differences in the effects of being exposed to alcohol while in the womb. Prenatal alcohol exposure increased girls’ risk of developing depression and anxiety, whereas in boys, it increased the risk of ADHD, conduct …

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