Fear Research

Acan downregulation in parvalbumin GABAergic cells reduces spontaneous recovery of fear memories

Click here for the article published by Molecular Psychiatry. Molecular Psychiatry, Published online: 02 May 2023; doi:10.1038/s41380-023-02085-0 Acan downregulation in parvalbumin GABAergic cells reduces spontaneous recovery of fear memories Continue reading … Disclaimer: The content of this article has not been checked or verified. Proceed at your own risk. Back to Home Page

anxiety panic attack fear treatment help OCD phobia psychotherapy psychiatry Dr Jonathan Haverkampf

Keeping Health Care Workers Healthy During COVID-19: Exploring the Link Between Fear, Resilience, and Psychological Distress

Click here for the article published by Frontiers in Psychiatry. This study found that incorporating the Fear of Covid Scale (FCV-19S) and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS14) into the analysis revealed interesting insights. When FCV-19S was included, it was associated with psychological distress, but job titles were not. However, when RS14 was considered, resilience was …

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How Online Schooling Worries Affect Children’s Anxiety During Lockdown in Ireland: Insights from Parents and Kids

The COVID-19 pandemic has persisted as a worrying time for children who have been using technology for online schooling during lockdown and their parents. This study investigates the extent of children’s and parents’ self-reported worries associated with children’s anxiety during lockdown in Ireland. Data for 461 children and 461 parents were analyzed from the Ireland dataset obtained as part of the Kids’ Digital Lives in COVID-19 Times (KiDiCoTi) international survey. Children reported worries about keeping up with school activities online, getting poor grades, and completing their schoolwork online. Parents reported worries about COVID-19 having a negative influence on their children’s education and their children being exposed to more online risks. Children’s worries about school explained much of the variance of their anxiety to a significant degree, whereas parents’ worries explained that variance to a lesser extent. Implications of these results are discussed in the article.

Anxiety, depressive symptoms, and distress over the course of the war in Ukraine in three federal states in Germany

Click here for the article published by Frontiers in Psychiatry. The Russian invasion of Ukraine and the resulting consequences are in the center of political discussions, media, and likely individual thinking of the population in Germany. Yet, the impact of this prolonged exposure on mental health is not known hitherto. Using the population based cohort …

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Relationship between depression, anxiety, stress, and SARS-CoV-2 infection: a longitudinal study

ObjectivesWe aimed to (1) describe the course of the emotional burden (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) in a general population sample during the coronavirus pandemic in 2020 and 2021 and (2) explore the association between emotional burden and a serologically proven infection with SARS-CoV-2.Study designThis longitudinal study involved a sample of community-dwelling persons aged ≥14 years from the general population of South Tyrol (Province of Bolzano-Bozen, Northern Italy). Data were collected at two stages over a 1-year period in 2020 and 2021.MethodsPersons were invited to participate in a survey on socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial variables (e.g., age, chronic diseases, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, DASS-21), as well as in the serological testing for of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins.ResultsIn 2020, 855 (23.8%) out of 3,600 persons participated; in 2021, 305 (35.7%) out of 855 were tested again. We observed a statistically significant decrease in mean DASS-21 scores for depression, stress, and total scores between 2020 and 2021, yet not for anxiety. Persons with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infection between the first and second data collection exhibited increased emotional burden compared to those without SARS-CoV-2-infection. The odds of participants with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder for future infection with SARS-CoV-2 was almost four times higher than that of participants without mental disorders (OR:3.75; 95%CI:1.79-7.83).ConclusionOur findings support to the hypothesis of a psycho-neuroendocrine-immune interplay in COVID-19. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms underlying the interplay between mental health and SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Mechanisms of cognitive-behavioral therapy effects on symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder: a network intervention analysis

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a severe and undertreated condition. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the first-line psychosocial treatment for this common disorder, how the intervention works is insufficiently understood. Specific pathways have been hypothesized, but only one small study has examined the precise nature of treatment effects of CBT, and no prior study has examined the effects of supportive psychotherapy (SPT).

This study re-examined a large trial (n = 120) comparing CBT to SPT for BDD. Network intervention analyses were used to explore symptom-level data across time. We computed mixed graphical models at multiple time points to examine relative differences in direct and indirect effects of the two interventions.

In the resulting networks, CBT and SPT appeared to differentially target certain symptoms. The largest differences included CBT increasing efforts to disengage from and restructure unhelpful thoughts and resist BDD rituals, while SPT was directly related to improvement in BDD-related insight. Additionally, the time course of differences aligned with the intended targets of CBT; cognitive effects emerged first and behavioral effects second, paralleling cognitive restructuring in earlier sessions and the emphasis on exposure and ritual prevention in later sessions. Differences in favor of CBT were most consistent for behavioral targets.

CBT and SPT primarily affected different symptoms. To improve patient care, the field needs a better understanding of how and when BDD treatments and treatment components succeed. Considering patient experiences at the symptom level and over time can aid in refining or reorganizing treatments to better fit patient needs.

The effects of the pandemic on mental health in persons with and without a psychiatric history

Prospective studies are needed to assess the influence of pre-pandemic risk factors on mental health outcomes following the COVID-19 pandemic. From direct interviews prior to (T1), and then in the same individuals after the pandemic onset (T2), we assessed the influence of personal psychiatric history on changes in symptoms and wellbeing.

Two hundred and four (19–69 years/117 female) individuals from a multigenerational family study were followed clinically up to T1. Psychiatric symptom changes (T1-to-T2), their association with lifetime psychiatric history (no, only-past, and recent psychiatric history), and pandemic-specific worries were investigated.

At T2 relative to T1, participants with recent psychopathology (in the last 2 years) had significantly fewer depressive (mean, M = 41.7 v. 47.6) and traumatic symptoms (M = 6.6 v. 8.1, p < 0.001), while those with no and only-past psychiatric history had decreased wellbeing (M = 22.6 v. 25.0, p < 0.01). Three pandemic-related worry factors were identified: Illness/death, Financial, and Social isolation. Individuals with recent psychiatric history had greater Illness/death and Financial worries than the no/only-past groups, but these worries were unrelated to depression at T2. Among individuals with no/only-past history, Illness/death worries predicted increased T2 depression [B = 0.6(0.3), p < 0.05]. Conclusions As recent psychiatric history was not associated with increased depression or anxiety during the pandemic, new groups of previously unaffected persons might contribute to the increased pandemic-related depression and anxiety rates reported. These individuals likely represent incident cases that are first detected in primary care and other non-specialty clinical settings. Such settings may be useful for monitoring future illness among newly at-risk individuals.

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