Tracking perceived stress, anxiety, and depression in daily life: a double-downward spiral process

Click here for the article published by Frontiers in Psychology.

Previous studies using retrospective questionnaires have suggested a complex relationship between perceived stress and related negative emotions and emphasized their importance in mental health. However, how daily perceived stress, anxiety, and depression interact dynamically in a natural context remains largely unexplored. …

The hierarchical linear models confirmed that daily perceived stress and negative emotions (i.e., perceived depression and anxiety) could reciprocally reinforce one another with the characteristic dynamics of a cognitive–emotional downward spiral. Additionally, anxiety and depression could further circularly aggravate each other imminently. These two intertwined downward-spiral processes constitute a double-downward-spiral model. …

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