Sex and gender role differences on stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in response to the COVID-19 pandemic over time

During the pandemic, stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms have been reported, with significant inter-individual variations. Previous cross-sectional research have discovered that gender roles and sex can modulate a person’s susceptibility to experiencing such symptoms. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this longitudinal study looked at how stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in adults interacted with sex and psychological gender roles.

Following the confinement measures in Montreal in March 2020, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to measure stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms every three months (from June 2020 to March 2021) in 103 females and 50 males. Prior to the pandemic, the Bem Sex Role Inventory was used to measure masculinity and femininity scores, which were then incorporated as predictors along with time, sex, and location. …

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